Establishing the Hormonal Relationship between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hypothyroidism: A Literature Review

Here is the abstract of our newest accepted publication, Please follow the link below! http://msrj.chm.msu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/MSRJ2019187.pdf Deborah Anuoluwapo Aina, Saba University School of Medicine, Devens, MA, USA, Dutch Caribbean Objective: The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the hormonal relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and hypothyroidism. Methods: Electronic databases such as Ebscohost and PubMed were searched, using words and phrases specific to the topic. Journal articles were filtered for publications from no earlier than 2008 to ensure accuracy and relevance. Results: Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid-stimulating hormone were significantly higher in polycystic ovary syndrome patients compared to controls (P<0.05). Polycystic ovary syndrome patients also had a statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (P=0.035) and subclinical hypothyroidism (P=0.0133) compared to controls. In polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels ≥2.5 mIU/L, a significantly increased insulin resistance (P=0.007) and a significantly decreased insulin sensitivity (P=0.003) were observed compared to same patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels <2.5 mIU/L. Serum triglycerides were significantly higher in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to same patients with normal thyroid function (P=0.013). A significant positive correlation was present between luteinizing hormone and thyroid volume (P=0.007) and between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid volume (P<0.0001). With thyroid hormone replacement, there was a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and free T3 /T4 levels, with a corresponding decrease in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol, insulin resistance, and free testosterone in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with untreated hypothyroidism. The polycystic-appearing ovaries and ovarian volumes in these patients also significantly regressed (P<0.05). Conclusion: Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with hypothyroidism. Hence, achieving euthyroidism may improve the clinical and morphologic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Keywords: PCOS, hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, polycystic ovary, hormone, thyroid, autoimmune, insulin...

read more

New Article: Ultrasound vs CT for Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis and Appendicitis Treatment Altering Conditions

New Article: Ultrasound vs CT for Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis and Appendicitis Treatment Altering Conditions

Interested in imaging modalities and their effectiveness in diagnostics?  Read the abstract and click the link below for our newest accepted publication!   Ultrasound vs CT for Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis and Appendicitis Treatment Altering Conditions Christopher Borowy, MS-IV1*, Luke Rond, D.O2, John Ashurst, D.O2, and Stefan Merrill, M.D2 1Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Kingman Regional Medical Center, Kingman, AZ, USA Introduction: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of atraumatic abdominal pain in children over 1 year of age. Even though diagnostic imaging modalities have evolved over the past 20 years, accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis still presents as a challenge. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the most commonly used radiographic test for acute appendicitis. Unlike CT, ultrasound (US) does not require ionizing radiation which is harmful to the patient. Even though the specificity of US has been well studied in acute appendicitis, CT is still commonly requested after a positive US. Till date, there has been no published research evaluating the utility of US in changing management in appendicitis. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the ability of US and CT to diagnose pathology proven acute appendicitis and to predict Appendicitis Treatment Altering Conditions (ATAC). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that compares the positive predictive value (PPV) and the ATAC rate of US and CT when diagnosing acute appendicitis. Results: There were 432 appendicitis cases reported between 1 October 2012 and 30 June 2017. Of those cases, 409 were diagnosed by CT and 23 were diagnosed by US. The PPV of both modalities was above 90% (CT = 97%, US = 95%), and the ATAC rates were statistically similar (CT = 14%, US = 22%, P = 0.21). Conclusion: The study supports that a positive US for appendicitis is as diagnostic as a positive CT. Therefore, adding on a CT scan after a positive US does not help recognize other sources of intra-abdominal pathology that would negate doing a laparoscopy. Keywords: US, ultrasound, CT, CAT, ATAC, appendicitis, sensitivity, positive predictive value, PPV...

read more

MSRJ 2020 Leadership Transition Information

MSRJ 2020 Leadership Transition Information

Dear MSRJ Members, As our Transition Meeting is approaching over the next couple of months, we need to make preparations for the new Executive Board for the 2020-2021 year. We will be holding elections to determine the leadership positions, and this email is for anyone who is interested in running for an E-board position! Being a part of the MSRJ board is a great leadership opportunity, has been very fun, and has come up on CV and residency interviews often! Here are the available positions, with descriptions of each position at the end of this page: M4 Exec Editor M3 Exec Editor SE Coordinator JE Coordinator Treasurer PR Officer Secretary Fundraising Chair PubMed/OJS Officer If you are interested in running, please email me: kathleen.louis@msrj.chm.msu.edu with a brief statement of interest, and why you would be a good candidate (~1 paragraph). We will send this information out to all members once we receive all of the submissions. We are asking that you respond by March 20th, so that we can have time to set up the election poll and have results by the Transition Meeting. If anyone has questions, please feel free to email me -Kathleen     Elected Positions M4 Executive Editor Eligibility: Any current M3 who will be an M4 in the coming school year. Responsible for overseeing and providing guidance to Public Relations Officer. Provide guidance to and oversee the Elective Team regarding recruitment of new members. Serve with, and at the discretion of, the Executive Editor in Chief with respect to identifying and training leadership for the following year, including the 3rd year executive editor. Perform executive reviews on submitted articles to determine if they will advance to peer review process. Receive reports on article progress and issues on the Senior Editor level from Lead Senior Editor. Assign articles to Senior and Junior Editors following Executive reviews. M3 Executive Editor Eligibility: Any current M2 who will be an M3 in the coming year who has a desire to serve as Executive Editor in Chief in their 4th year. Responsible for overall management and supervision of Reviewer Management including online training article, letters of good standing, access to OJS training article. Receive reports from Lead Junior Editor regarding article progress and issues on the Junior Editor level from Lead Junior Editor. Responsible to assist EE-in-Chief and Tech Team with articles in preparation for the following year. Responsible to assist Executive Editor in Chief with tasks related to managing the MSRJ. Perform executive reviews on submitted articles to determine if they will advance to peer review process. Senior Editor Coordinator Eligibility: Must be Former SE, will still be SE Act as intermediary between Executive Editors and Senior Editors Assist Senior Editors with issues they encounter during the review process escalate issue to EEs if needed Maintain SE demographics (where are SEs from? How often are they being assigned? How quickly are they completing articles?) Junior Editor Coordinator Eligibility: Must be Former JE but will still be SE Act as intermediary between Executive Editors and Junior Editors. Assist Junior Editors with issues they encounter during the review process escalate issue to EEs if needed. Maintain JE demographics (where are SEs from? How often are they being assigned? How quickly are they completing articles?). Maintain reviewer demographics, so that we...

read more

Transfemoral Aortic Valve-in-Valve Replacement in Patient with Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm

Transfemoral Aortic Valve-in-Valve Replacement in Patient with Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm

Another new and interesting article from our Fall 2019 Issue!  Read the abstract below and click on the link for the full article. Transfemoral Aortic Valve-in-Valve Replacement in Patient with Aortic Root Pseudoaneurysm (Click link for full PDF)   Authors: Mark A. Nolan, P.E., M.Eng1, Stephane Leung Wai Sang, M.D., MSc2 Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was successfully performed to treat aortic regurgitation (AR) in a patient with a failed aortic valve replacement complicated by aortic root pseudoaneurysm. Case Presentation: A 92-year-old male presented with acute decompensated congestive heart failure secondary to AR of a previously implanted stentless aortic bioprosthesis, complicated by a 2.5 x 1.7 cm pseudoaneurysm of the aortic root. Conclusions: Complex aortic root and valve disease can be safely and effectively addressed through the use of TAVR in high-risk patients. The presence of a pseudoaneurysm should not preclude successful TAVR....

read more

Association between Total Knee Arthroplasty and Subtalar Joint Changes: A Cadaver Study

Association between Total Knee Arthroplasty and Subtalar Joint Changes: A Cadaver Study

New article from the MSRJ 2019 Fall issue is now up on the site! Read the abstract or click on the link below for the full article. Association between Total Knee Arthroplasty and Subtalar Joint Changes: A Cadaver Study (Click link for full PDF article) Authors: Dominick J. Casciato, B.A.1*, Natalie A. Builes, B.A.2, Luis A. Rodriguez Anaya, DPM1, Bibi N. Singh, DPM1 Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become the procedure of choice for those suffering from debilitating degenerative joint disease of the knee; however, new research suggests that functional changes in the rearfoot occur following the procedure to compensate for gait changes. This pilot study investigates subtalar joint (STJ) changes in cadavers with TKAs. Methods: Four embalmed cadavers with a unilateral TKA were disarticulated at the STJ and the calcaneal articular facets were imaged. The length, width, and area of these facets ipsilateral to the joint replacement were measured using image analysis software and compared to the contralateral side. Results: All cadavers exhibited evidence of anatomical changes at the STJ. Moreover, a transition to an anatomically unstable STJ was observed. Conclusions: This study suggests that biomechanical compensation at the STJ may result in anatomical changes in the joint in which form of the joint follows function. Though this pathology may have developed prior to such arthroplasty, the unilateral nature of the facet changes emphasizes the need to further investigate and address gait abnormalities before and after joint replacement to optimize biomechanics in the arthritic knee.    ...

read more

2019-2020 Editorial Staff Photo

2019-2020 Editorial Staff Photo

Thank you to the 2019-2020 MSRJ Staff who were able to make it to our General Board meeting!  These students came from  MSUCHM’s clinical campuses, spread across the state of Michigan, to meet their new editorial staff peers.  We appreciate the hard work and positive attitude each student brings to MSRJ as we pursue our mission of publishing the scientific achievements of medical students.  Also, thank you to Dr. Mark Trottier (far left in picture) for his continued guidance and support as our MSU faculty...

read more