Fall 2014 – Acute Bronchiolitis – Case Report and Review of Management Guidelines

Acute Bronchiolitis – Case Report and Review of Management Guidelines.

AuthorNeil D. Dattani, Clare M. Hutchinson

Author Affiliations: Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

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Corresponding Author: Clare M. Hutchinson, claremhutchinson[at]gmail.com

Key Words: Bronchiolitis; Case reports; Pediatrics; Practice guidelines; Therapeutics.

Abstract: Introduction: The treatment of acute bronchiolitis is controversial, despite the fact that several well-designed trials have been conducted on the subject. Patient profile: A 10-month-old boy presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of upper respiratory tract symptoms and an expiratory wheeze. Chest X-ray showed right upper lobe atelectasis. He was diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis. Interventions: He received nebulized salbutamol (albuterol) and oral dexamethasone in the emergency department. He was admitted to hospital overnight for continued salbutamol treatment via a metered-dose inhaler. Discussion: Five main treatment regimens exist for acute bronchiolitis nebulized epinephrine (adrenaline), other bronchodilators, nebulized hypertonic saline, glucocorticoids, and combinations of these. Nebulized epinephrine decreases the rate of hospitalization, other bronchodilators improve symptoms, and nebulized hypertonic saline reduces the length of hospitalization. There is no strong evidence for glucocorticoids or combinations of these treatments. Combined treatment with epinephrine and dexamethasone reduces rate of hospitalization.

Published on date: September 31, 2014

Senior Editor: Kevin Patterson

Junior Editor: Patrick Roach

DOI: Pending

Citation: Dattani ND, Hutchinson CM. Acute Bronchiolitis – Case Report and Review of Management Guidelines. Medical Student Research Journal. 2014;4(Fall):8-11.

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Jessica Wummel

Executive Editor
Jessica Wummel is a third year medical student at Michigan State University’s College of Human Medicine. She received her B.S. in Human Biology with a specialization in Bioethics, Humanities, and Society also from Michigan State University in 2011 from the Lyman Briggs College. She is interested in pursuing a career in Med/Peds and would eventually like to be involved in academic medicine later in her career.