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Time to Neurological Deterioration

Posted by on Mar 17, 2016 in Articles, ePubs | 0 comments

Time to Neurological Deterioration in Ischemic Stroke.

Author: James E. Siegler, MD1†, Karen C. Albright, DO, MPH2,3,4,5†, Alexander J. George, BS1, Amelia K. Boehme, MSPH2, Michael A. Gillette, MPH 1, Andre D. Kumar, MD1, Monica Aswani MSPH6, Sheryl Martin-Schild, MD, PhD1

Author Affiliations:

1 Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, Tulane University Hospital, New Orleans, LA 70112.

2 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294.

3 Health Services and Outcomes Research Center for Outcome and Effectiveness Research and Education (COERE), University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294.

4 Center of Excellence in Comparative Effectiveness Research for Eliminating Disparities (CERED) Minority Health & Health Disparities Research Center (MHRC), University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294.

5 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294.

6 Department of Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249.

Siegler and Albright contributed equally to this article as first authors.

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: Sheryl Martin-Schild, smartin2@tulane.edu

Key Words: Acute ischemic stroke, neurological deterioration, latency, time to event analysis

 

Abstract:

Background: Neurological deterioration (ND) is common, with nearly one-half of ND patients deteriorating within the first 24 to 48 hours of stroke.  The timing of ND with respect to ND etiology and reversibility has not been investigated.

Methods: At our center, we define ND as an increase of 2 or more points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score within 24 hours and categorize etiologies of ND according to clinical reversibility.  ND etiologies were considered non-reversible if such causes may have produced or extended any areas of ischemic neurologic injury due to temporary or permanent impairment in cerebral perfusion.

Results: Seventy-one of 350 ischemic stroke patients experienced ND.  Over half (54.9%) of the patients who experienced ND did so within the 48 hours of last seen normal.  The median time to ND for non-reversible causes was 1.5 days (IQR 0.9, 2.4 days) versus 2.6 days for reversible causes (IQR 1.4, 5.5 days, p=0.011).  After adjusting for NIHSS and hematocrit on admission, the log-normal survival model demonstrated that for each 1-year increase in a patient’s age, we expect a 3.9% shorter time to ND (p=0.0257).  In addition, adjusting for age and hematocrit on admission, we found that that for each 1-point increase in the admission NIHSS, we expect a 3.1% shorter time to ND (p=0.0034).

Conclusions: We found that despite having similar stroke severity and age, patients with nonreversible causes of ND had significantly shorter median time to ND when compared to patients with reversible causes of ND.

 

Published on date: March, 2016

 

DOI: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0005

Citation: Siegler J, Albright K, et al. Time to Neurological Deterioration in Ischemic Stroke. Medical Student Research Journal (2016). doi:10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0005

References:

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  6. Siegler JE, Boehme AK, Kumar AD, Gillette MA, Albright KC, Beasley TM, et al. Identification of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for neurologic deterioration after acute ischemic stroke. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2013;22(7):e207-13.
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Does Traditional Chinese Medicine Matter?

Posted by on Mar 17, 2016 in Articles, ePubs | 0 comments

Does Traditional Chinese Medicine Matter? Medical Choices of Rural Diabetic Patients in Changsha, China

Author: Xiaoyue Mona Guo, B.A.1, Shuiyuan Xiao, M.D., Ph.D.2

Author Affiliations:

1Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT USA

2Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: Xiaoyue Mona Guo

Key Words: Traditional Chinese Medicine, Health-seeking behaviors, Rural China, Diabetes

 

Abstract:

Introduction: With an aging, urbanizing population, China is home to the world’s largest number of adult diabetics. Although more diabetic patients currently live in cities, the prevalence of pre-diabetes is greater in the rural population due to changing dietary and physical habits, as well as the relative poverty. This demographic is thus an important target for public health intervention. As Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is viewed in China as useful for treating chronic diseases and widely accepted, we sought to explore its use for rural diabetic patients.

Methods: The study population included 63 diabetic patients and two village doctors from four rural villages near Changsha, China. An initial survey was orally conducted with all 63 participants to collect demographics, financial situation, health-seeking behaviors, treatment beliefs, and medical expenditure. Three focus groups of six rural patients each were subsequently held at village health centers. For analysis, questionnaire data was summarized using means and standard deviations or medians and quartiles. Focus group sessions were voice-recorded and transcripts were coded for thematic analysis.

Results/Conclusions: Questionnaire data revealed that for the majority of participants, seeing a doctor is costly in terms of time and money. Patients often do not have the luxury of choosing their medical provider. Despite the benefits of TCM, its slow speed and cumbersome preparation methods do not fit a need for immediate results. Furthermore, TCM doctors are not as available or accessible as Western medicine doctors. As such, although 20% of rural patients rated higher trust in TCM than WM, no patient solely used TCM for their treatment. Instead, almost 40% of patients try to use both TCM and WM. Village practitioners similarly believed that although diabetes treatment should go towards integrative treatment, TCM’s development is hindered by its slow onset and inconvenience coupled with a more systemic lack of TCM infrastructure and research in China. In summary, the continued trust that rural patients place in TCM supports further research for better understanding the true economic, social, and health benefits of having combined TCM-WM treatment be part of diabetes standard of care.

Published on date: March 2016

DOI: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0004

Citation: Guo X, Xiao S. Does Traditional Chinese Medicine Matter? Medical Choices of Rural Diabetic Patients in Changsha, China, Medical Student Research Journal (2016). doi:10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0004

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Combating Obstacles to Empathy

Posted by on Mar 17, 2016 in Articles, ePubs | 0 comments

Combating Obstacles to Empathy: A Replicable Small Group Discussion Series for Medical Students

Author: Francesca P. Kingery, M.S.1*, Alexander Bajorek, M.D. M.A.2, Amber Zimmer Deptola, M.D.3 Karen Hughes Miller, Ph.D.4, Craig Ziegler Ph.D.5, Pradip D. Patel M.D.6

Author Affiliations:

1School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA.

3Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.  

4Graduate Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

5Office of Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

6Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: Francesca P. Kingery, fdprib01@louisville.edu

Key Words: Medical Humanities, Bioethics, Curriculum, Student-led, Empathy, Medical Education, Pre-Clinical

 

Abstract:

The expression of humanism in patient encounters is a core component of the medical profession and evolving national medical student curriculum. Growing evidence suggests that empathetic care improves patient outcomes and diagnostic accuracy while decreasing physician stress and rates of litigation. Unfortunately, multiple recent studies using different scales and survey tools have consistently shown empathy to decrease during the third and fourth years of medical school. We developed a replicable, case-based, student and expert-driven, small-group discussion series designed to address this decline. Over two years, the series included four separate discussions over controversial topics seldom addressed by formal courses (Chronic Pain Management vs. Prescription Drug Abuse, Balancing Business and Medicine, and Domestic Violence). We utilized pre- and post-session surveys to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the program. Our results demonstrated significant improvement in participants’ comfort with the subject matter and desire to approach faculty and peers regarding humanistic patient care. Future and more frequent interactions, combined with optimization of the format could further uncover the utility of this program. Ultimately, we believe our discussion series could be replicated on other medical campuses.

 

Published on date: March, 2016

 

DOI: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0001

Citation: Kingery et al. Combating Obstacles to Empathy: A Replicable Small Group Discussion Series for Medical Students Medical Student Research Journal (2016). doi: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0001

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Medals 4 Mettle

Posted by on Mar 17, 2016 in Articles, ePubs | 0 comments

Medals4Mettle: A Program to Enhance the Medical Student-Patient Bond

Author: McKenzie Vater MS31*, Pradip D. Patel MD2, Kanyalakshmi Ayyanar, MD3, Autumn Marks, RN BSN CPHON4, Craig Ziegler, PhD5, Karen Hughes Miller, PhD6

Author Affiliations:

1Medical Student, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

2 Professor of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

3 Associate Professor, Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

4Practice Manager, University of Louisville Physicians Pediatric Cancer and Blood Disorders, Louisville, KY, USA.

5 Biostatistician, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

6 Associate Professor, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: McKenzie Vater, mrvate01@louisville.edu

Key Words: service learning, humanism, empathy, student/patient communication, extracurricular activity

 

Abstract:

Introduction: Humanism is a necessary component of patient care. Medical schools are implementing strategies to educate students about humanism in medicine. The University of Louisville School of Medicine (ULSOM) encourages such practices through collaboration with Medals4Mettle (M4M), a non-profit organization that gives marathon medals to patients battling debilitating illnesses. The ULSOM’s chapter matches students participating in the Kentucky Derby Half/Full Marathon with pediatric patients, allowing students to establish a relationship with their “running buddies” prior to gifting their medals on race day as an act of support and acknowledgement of their struggle. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ULSOM chapter and to create a replicable model for other institutions to employ.

Methods: We conducted a survey for current and previous student and patient/parent participants. Participants were asked to complete six 5-point Likert scaled questions anchored with “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree” and three open-ended questions. The surveys were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative analysis and Pandit’s variation of Glaser and Straus’ constant comparison for qualitative analysis.

Results: Data was collected from 62 medical students and 21 patients or parents (49% and 33% response rate, respectively). Five of the scaled questions had mean scores above 4.0, revealing that the majority of participants would recommend the M4M program to others and that M4M helped students relate to their patient on a personal level. The qualitative analysis identified four themes among participants: M4M is a wonderful program, it provides a patient benefit, people want to re-participate, and it allows you to connect with others.

Discussion: Findings from the survey suggest the implementation of programs like M4M will promote the integration of humanistic practices into medical school curricula. In the future, we plan to pair medical students with the patients earlier to create a longer-lasting, more meaningful relationship prior to the race.

 

Published on date: March, 2016

 

DOI: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0002

Citation: McKenzie et al. Medals4Mettle: A Program to Enhance the Medical Student-Patient Bond, Medical Student Research Journal (2016). doi: 10.15404/msrj/03.2016.0002

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  14. Pandit, NR (1996) Creation of Theory: A Recent Application of the Grounded Theory Method. The Qual Repo 2(4). Available online at http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR2-4/pandit.html
  15. Cohen, Jacob. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988. Print

New Feature: MSRJ e-Publications

Posted by on Mar 17, 2016 in Featured | 0 comments

New Feature: MSRJ e-Publications

epub early access picture

MSRJ’s Exciting New Feature!

The staff of MSRJ is extremely pleased to announce the addition of an exciting new feature to our journal! Starting today, we will be launching MSRJ e-Publication, which will be our first ever early-access publication issue. MSRJ e-publication will enable us to publish articles “online before print” as many other journals do. This new feature has many advantages for our student contributors including:

  • Faster publishing time for accepted manuscripts
  • Increased ease of access
  • Greater longevity of published literature
  • Assignment of a unique Digital Object Identifier number

We want to express our appreciation and thanks to the authors who have been instrumental in getting this put together. We invite you to take a look at their articles in our first-ever e-Pub Early Access Issue:

 

Combating Obstacles to Empathy: A Replicable Small Group Discussion Series for Medical Students.

Authors: Francesca P. Kingery, M.S., Alexander Bajorek, M.D. M.A., Amber Zimmer Deptola, M.D. Karen Hughes Miller, Ph.D., Craig Ziegler Ph.D., Pradip D. Patel M.D.

Medals4Mettle: A Program to Enhance the Medical Student-Patient Bond

Authors: McKenzie Vater MS3, Pradip D. Patel MD, Kanyalakshmi Ayyanar, MD, Autumn Marks, RN BSN CPHON, Craig Ziegler, PhD, Karen Hughes Miller,PhD

Does Traditional Chinese Medicine Matter? Medical Choices of Rural Diabetic Patients in Changsha, China.

Authors: Xiaoyue Mona Guo, B.A., Shuiyuan Xiao, M.D., Ph.D.

Time to Neurological Deterioration in Ischemic Stroke.

Authors: James E. Siegler, MD; Karen C. Albright, DO, MPH; Alexander J. George, BS; Amelia K. Boehme, MSPH; Michael A. Gillette, MPH; Andre D. Kumar, MD; Monica Aswani MSPH; Sheryl Martin-Schild, MD, PhD

 

What is e-Publication?

With MSRJ ePubs, not only will student authors be able to see their manuscripts published earlier, but each article will be assigned an individual Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number. A DOI number is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a digital object. The DOI number is then registered with CrossRef.org, which is an official DOI registration agency dedicated to providing reliable and efficient reference linking for online scholarly material.

Each DOI uniquely identifies the article and provides a permanent link that takes readers to that particular electronic document, even if the web address which originally hosted the article changes.

These DOI’s already exist in various online journals such as JAMA and NEJM. They also provide ease of citation since they provide a short, easy, and unchanging link to the original document as opposed to a lengthy web address.

 

What Does This Mean for Student Contributors?

The use of DOIs enables us to safely publish intellectual property on the internet, prior to print, and without fear of plagiarism. The fact that DOIs are registered with Crossref © makes them permanent, so our student authors will always be able to find their articles, even many years down the road, using just that unique identifier. Finally, it makes these articles easy to reference, for any future researchers.

At any point in the future, people can access an article just by typing doi.org/ followed by the DOI number. This will automatically take you to wherever the article is housed at that time. It’s that simple!

Starting from today onwards, accepted manuscripts which have been prepared for e-Publication will be available for viewing under the new tab “ePubs” under “Publications” on the MSRJ website. Once we are off the ground, our MSRJ Tech Team will continue to work with the Executive Editors to format and prepare accepted manuscripts for e-Publication, and will continue fine-tuning the process to ensure smooth and continuous e-Publishing.

 

Behind the Scenes Work:

We would like to extend a special thanks our wonderful MSRJ Tech Team for their endless energy and tireless work towards getting e-Publication launched and helping our journal continue to grow. This has been no small feat, and we could not have done it without them! Leading the charge are Danny Yau and Danielle Levy, second-year medical students at MSU-CHM. They have been instrumental in designing the MSRJ template for our e-Publications, getting the MSRJ set up to accept and publish e-Publications, andestablishing the procedure for assigning DOIs to our manuscripts for future online publication.

We would also like to thank our faculty advisors, Dr. Luz and Dr. Trottier, for their support in helping us coordinate this transition to e-Publication.

 

Final Words:

As the longest-running journal run by medical students for medical students, we at the MSRJ strive to provide the highest quality product and experience for our student contributors. We hope that the addition of e-Publication will provide medical students another platform to promote their scholarship and research. and would like to thank our authors for their great submissions, support, and patience as we transition into this new phase.

MSRJ Elective Update: Academic Medicine

Posted by on Feb 16, 2016 in Elective, Featured | 0 comments

MSRJ Elective Update: Academic Medicine

On Wednesday, February 10, Dr. Rajil Karnani came to the East Lansing campus to talk to the students in the MSRJ Elective about careers in academic medicine. He presented about the many ways to become involved in academia, and the variety of career pathways that academic medicine can offer.  He covered the advantages and disadvantages to consider, along with the keys to success that he has learned over the years. Dr. Karnani also gave some personal anecdotes on his experience and some tricks of the trade that he wished he knew when he entered the field. Lastly, Dr. Karnani fielded questions from the 30 students who attended the lecture. The students enjoyed the lecture and found it very informative, as careers in academic medicine are seldom talked about during our learning and training.

 

Student question and answer session with Dr. Rajil Karnani

Student question and answer session with Dr. Rajil Karnani.

 

Dr. Rajil Karnani lectures to the MSRJ Elective students about pursuing a career in academic medicine.

Dr. Rajil Karnani lectures to the MSRJ Elective students about pursuing a career in academic medicine.

Editorial Staff 2015-2016

Posted by on Jul 26, 2015 in Featured, Staff | 0 comments

Editorial Staff 2015-2016

Introducing the new 2015 – 2016 editorial staff for the MSRJ! We are beyond excited for the upcoming academic year as we welcome 20+ new junior editors to the experienced MSRJ staff. The journal has been making incredible progress and we look forward to another productive year publishing impressive article submissions and supporting medical student research around the world! (more…)

Vol. 4: Winter 2015

Posted by on Jan 1, 2015 in Featured, Issues | 0 comments

Vol. 4: Winter 2015

MSRJ – Volume 4 – Winter 2015

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Winter 2015 – Care for Laotian Ethnic Minorities: A Cross-National Study of Medical Students in Laos and California

Posted by on Jan 1, 2015 in Articles | 0 comments

Care for Laotian Ethnic Minorities: A Cross-National Study of Medical Students in Laos and California

Author: Katherine Crabtree1,Oanh L. Meyer2, Tonya L. Fancher3

Author Affiliations:

1UC Davis College of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA

2UC Davis School of Medicine, Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, Sacramento, CA, USA

3UC Davis School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: Katherine Crabtree, katcrabtree[at]gmail.com

Key Words: Hmong; Mien; Laos, refugees; cross-cultural healthcare; medical education.

Abstract: Background: In both the United States and Laos, Lao ethnic minority patients face cultural and linguistic challenges to adequate medical care. We may be able to learn from Lao experiences to improve care for patients in the United States. This study explored Laotian and American medical students’ experiences in care for these patients. Methods: Laotian and American medical students (n_19) participated in five interview groups discussing barriers to health care and strategies for addressing barriers for Laotian ethnic minority patients. Results: The students identified similar barriers to care. Laotian students identified unique strategies to address barriers to care. American students focused on general approaches to cross-cultural care. Discussion: The strategies that Laotian medical students learn in their training reflect their extensive exposure to Hmong and other Laotian ethnic minority patients, while American students learn broad strategies to care for many minority groups. Further work is needed to determine if their experience can be translated into the domestic context.

Published on date: January 1, 2015

Senior Editor: Ghadear Shukr

Junior Editor: Nadine Talia

DOI: Pending

Citation: Crabtree K, Fancher TL, Meyer TL. Care for Laotian Ethnic Minorities: A Cross-National Study of Medical Students in Laos and California. Medical Student Research Journal. 2015;4(Winter):66-70.

References:

  1. Ghent A. Overcoming migrants’ barriers to health. Bull World Health Org 2008; 8: 583-4.
  2. Habarad J. Refugees and the structure of opportunity: transitional adjustments to aid among U.S. resettled Lao Iu Mien, 1980-1985. Center Migrat Stud Spec Issues 1987; 5: 66-87.
  3. Yeung B. We are the people: the history of the Iu-Mien. SF Weekly 2001; 20.
  4. Lum T. Laos: background and U.S. relations. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress 2008. Available from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34320.pdf [cited 20 December 2011].
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  6. Catanzaro A. Health status of refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. JAMA 1982; 247: 1303-8.
  7. Laos overview. World directory of minorities and indigenous peoples. 2005. Available from: http://www.minorityrights.org/4014/laos/laos-overview.html [cited 20 January 2014].
  8. Depke J. Coalition building and the intervention wheel to address breast cancer screening in Hmong women. Clin Med Res 2011; 9: 1-6.
  9. Murphy-Thalacker K. Hypertension and the Hmong community: using the health belief model for health promotion. Health Promot Pract 2010; 13: 6.
  10. Johnson S. Hmong health beliefs and experiences in the western health care system. J Transcult Nurs 2002; 13: 126-32.
  11. Culhane-Pera K. ‘We are out of balance here’: a Hmong cultural model of diabetes. J Immigr Minor Health 2007; 9:179-90.
  12. BBC. Thai army deports Hmong to Laos. 2009. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8432094.stm [cited 7 January 2013].
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  18. Shirayama Y. Modern medicine and indigenous health beliefs: malaria control alongside ‘Sadsana-phee’. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006; 37: 622-9.
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  22. Michaud J. Handling mountain minorities in China, Vietnam and Laos: from history to current concerns. Asian Ethnicity 2009; 10: 25-49.
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Winter 2015 – Sticking to the Plan: Patient Preferences for Epidural Use During Labor

Posted by on Jan 1, 2015 in Articles | 0 comments

Sticking to the Plan: Patient Preferences for Epidural Use During Labor

Author: Lauren Ann Gamble1, Ashley Hesson1, Tiffany Burns2.

Author Affiliations:

1College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

2Department of Family Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Full Text Article PDF

Corresponding Author: Lauren Ann Gamble, gambleL2[at]msu.edu

Key Words: epidural; birth plan; labor analgesia; patient preference, decision making.

Abstract: Background: Women have been shown to value control in the labor experience, a desire that is often formalized into an explicit birth plan. Epidural preferences are a primary component of this plan. Despite this specification, women’s plans are not always carried out. This may be due to patient factors (e.g., dissatisfaction with labor), provider behaviors (e.g., frequent epidural offers), or situational variables (e.g., prolonged labor). Purpose: The current study investigates the relative impact of patient preference for epidural use as compared to provider suggestion and circumstances of labor. It hypothesizes that providing an epidural preference in a birth plan and receiving frequent epidural offers will predict epidural administration. Methods: Adult, postpartum women were surveyed about their labor experience at a high-volume obstetrics unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Responses to a structured survey instrument focused on prelabor preferences and labor characteristics. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression modeling were used to analyze participant responses. Results: Eighty-three postlaboring women completed surveys, of which 79 surveys were analyzed. Eighty-four percent (N_66) received an epidural during their labor process, while 73% (N_58) desired an epidural as a part of their birth plan. Women were offered an epidural at a mean frequency of 0.2790.48 times per hour (median_0.14). The significant predictors of epidural administration were desire for an epidural in the birth plan (pB0.01) and the frequency of epidural offers (pB0.01). Wanting an epidural was associated with receiving an epidural. Conversely, increased frequency of being offered an epidural negatively correlated with epidural administration. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that personal preference is the most influential factor in determining whether or not a laboring woman will receive an epidural. Increasing provider attempts to offer an epidural – as represented by increased frequency of queries- decreased the likelihood that an epidural would be received.

Published on date: January 1, 2015

Senior Editor: Tina Chaalan

Junior Editor: Jennifer Monacelli

DOI: Pending

Citation: Gamble LA, Hesson A, Burns T. Sticking to the Plan: Patient Preferences for Epidural Use During Labor. Medical Student Research Journal. 2015;4(Winter):59-65.

References:

 

 

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  7. Thompson R, Miller YD. Birth control: to what extent do women report being informed and involved in decisions about pregnancy and birth procedures? BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014; 14(1): 62.
  8. Toledo P, Sun J, Peralta F, Grobman WA, Wong CA, Hasnain-Wynia R. A qualitative analysis of parturients’ perspectives on neuraxial labor analgesia. Int J Obstet Anesth 2013; 22(2): 119-23.
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